勾勒内在技术

勾勒内在技术

Drafting Interior Techniques

作者:Steve Paxton(1993年发表于接触即兴CQ杂志 Vol.18(1), Winter/Spring 1993, pp.61-66)

译者:廖书艺、尹浩龙、铁阳(2021年)

How awkwardly we are damned if we don’t or if we do, I thought to myself after the European Contact Conference in Berlin in 1988. During a lecture event I had been asked “Just what is Contact Improvisation?” and I had muffed the answer. I was being asked by a woman with an attitude, in the presence of a number of veteran contactors, general public, and students, and I hesitated in order to think how the question should be answered for the whole group. The discussion up to that point had been full of historical revisions, elisions, pointed remarks about Americentric heavy-footedness. In short, the European contactors considered themselves second generation users of this form and wanted to know if they had to go through every step the Americans had gone through, and a few people who had come to the conference without prior experience just wanted an explanation of what this whole thing was and how it was

run and how did one improve and get recognition, things like that, which would be reasonable questions in a normal organization.

在1988年柏林的欧洲接触即兴会议后,我在思索,无论做或者不做,我们都在一个尴尬的走不出的处境。在一个讲座中,有人问,什么是接触即兴?我没有仔细作答。提问的是一个带有先见态度的女士,现场有很多经验丰富的练习者,也有普通大众和学生,我迟疑了一下,因为我想知道这个问题要怎么回答,才能照顾到所有的群体。在此之前的讨论都是关于历史的讨论,就“美国中心式”的笨拙性的尖刻评论。简而言之,欧洲的接触即兴练习者把他们看作这个形式的第二代学习者,他们感兴趣的是,第二代练习者也需要和美国一样,去经历每一步吗?一些没有经验的参会者,也单纯就想知道这究竟是什么,流程是什么,学习者可以怎么变得更好,获得认可,诸如此类,这些在一个组织中都是非常自然的问题。

The journal you are now reading had, among other things, been working for 15 years to elaborate on the basic answer to what is CI?” And as time has gone on, the answer has shifted: away from an experimental dance phenomenon and toward a physical practice allied with a number of complex new body and mind studies. I have come to think of contact improvisation as a physical event best described negatively, not art, not sport, not most of the things which characterize dancing in this century.

你手头这本杂志“接触季刊”(Contact Quarterly)已经在过去15年的时间一直在讨论这个问题,什么是接触即兴?随着时间的发展,一些答案也在改变,慢慢从实验性的舞蹈探索,转移到更多身体的练习,以及更复杂的关于身心的新研究。作为一个身体的活动,我更想用一些否定词来定义接触即兴,不是艺术,不是运动,不是我们在这个世纪来认定舞蹈的那些元素。

But I hate to describe things in the negative. It is accurate, but the mystics used it first and I don’t like using their devices, which were used to try to inform students in conversations about the ineffable.

但同时我也不喜欢用否定的方法来定义事物,虽然这可能更准确,神秘主义者最早喜欢这样来描述事物,以便在讨论中向学生传达关于不可言喻之事,我不想使用他们的方法。

We, on the other hand, are trying to describe the corporeal. But it is no longer easy to do so. It is, in fact, getting more difficult. We now know too much, or think we do; the corporeal seems to be a complexity of social, physical, geometric. glandular, political, intimate, and personal information which is not easily renderable.

一方面,我们在描述的是一个非常身体层面的东西,但也没有那么容易,反而越来越困难,我们现在知道太多,或者我们认为我们知道太多,身体也融合了一个复杂的系统,社会的,物理的,几何的,腺体层面的,政治的,亲密的,及不是那么容易展示出来的个人信息。

Once things were relatively simple. I thought I knew how this then nameless work should not be described. It was to be an improvisation without any ambiguous appeals to the imagination, because I did not know precisely what “the imagination” was (in fact I thought doing this work might educate me to the meanings of imagination, improvisation etc.). For the same reason there should be no mention of sexuality, psychology, spirituality. I would leave these in the

hands of the experts and proceed with what seemed more immediate, the senses and the physical body.

过去一切都相对简单,我一直知道这个未命名的探索不该用文字去描述它,它是没有模棱两可的想象参与的即兴,因为我不能准确知道“这个想象”是什么(实际上,在练习过程中我以为它会教给我想象和即兴的具体含义)。同样的,也不应该牵扯到性,心理学,灵性。我想这些有其领域的专家在研究,我们应该关注在更直接的问题,感官及物理层面的身体。

It did seem that before I could begin to train the senses of students, something had to happen in their brains. In recognizing that we do not begin to move from zero, that first we have a desire or image to launch the system into action, I decided that I had to work in the area of images, though cautiously. The images were to be, well, “real.” That is, they were not to be obviously unreal.

在我能够训练我的学生的感官之前,他们的大脑需要有所准备,我们没法从什么都没有的基础开始运动,所以开始我们有一个欲望,或者是一个画面,来启动身体机能,促发运动的产生,我决定在画面上下功夫,虽然还是很谨慎,这些画面需要有“真实性”,或者说,他们不能一看就是不真实的。

The effect of obviously unreal images upon the body is fascinating. For example, if you are told to imagine (that word!) your head is filled with a gas that’s lighter than air, it is difficult not to respond with neck extension and postural straightening. Why should this be so?

脑海里想象出来的虚构画面对身体的影响让人惊奇,比如,我告诉你去想象你的头充满了比空气还轻的气体,你很难不去伸长你的脖子,拉直一点你的体态,这一切是怎么联系到一起的呢?

It may be related to the sort of mobilization which happens when we are searching for a lost object. First, the thought of the object, then the eye movements, the head turning, standing up, facing in different directions, a tentative walk to a new viewpoint or a possible site of the object. All this prompted by the mental image of the desired object.

另外一个例子是当我们寻找我们丢失的某一个物品时,我们的一系列运动的发生,首先,对于这个物品的思绪,然后伴随着眼球的转动,头的转动,站起来,转身去面对不同的方向,试探性地走到不同的位置去改变观看角度,以及该物品可能存在的位置,所有的一切都由脑海中这个想要找到的物品的画面催生。

The responsiveness of the body to the image is innate, apparently, and with this innate connection the body may be responsive to any image the mind holds. But this is speculation about things which should be the subject of investigations. Without a theory of imagination to support our investigations, it seemed to me, we would have to improvise without fictitious gasses in the head — if that were possible.

身体对于画面的反应是天生的,脑海中产生的画面自然而然会和身体的反应有关联,但这是一个推断,我们应该把这个推断的主体作为一个研究对象。在我看来,我们没有一套支持我们研究的关于想象的理论,如果可能的话,在没有想象中的气体在我们的脑袋里的情况下,我们不得不即兴发挥。

At any rate, I had only about a week to come to convey the central idea before we, a group of apt students and myself, would be doing it in public at the John Weber Gallery in NYC each afternoon. This time pressure meant that this effect of images on the body would be an essential tool for quickly transmitting the initial states which would let this physical duet/improvisation manifest as directly as possible.

一群学生和我一起每天下午在纽约的约翰韦伯画廊(John Weber Gallery),我们有一周的时间去向公众展示我们核心思想,这个时间的压力意味着利用画面的效果会是能很快传达初始状态的一个重要的工具,这个状态让双方身体层面的运动和即兴都能最直接的展现。

The first job was to point out this image-action connection. Then, exercises which demonstrate it in various parts of the body had to be produced. For instance, a mental exercise I gave while people were standing, in which they were to “imagine, but don’t do it, imagine that you are about to take a step forward with your left foot. What is the difference? As you were. Imagine…(repeat). Imagine that you are about to take a step with your right foot, your left,

right, left, standing.”

首先要做的工作就是指出这个画面和动作之间的联系,然后我们需要设计能够在身体不同部位展现这个联系的一些练习,比如,当站立的时候我给的一些头脑里的画面想象练习,我会说“想象,但是不要去做,想象你的左脚即将往前踏出一步,和你实际踏出一步,有什么样的区别?想象,(重复),想象你的右脚即将往前踏出一步,你的左脚,右脚,左脚,站立。”

At this point, small smiles sometimes appeared on people’s faces and I suspected they felt the effect. They had gone on an imaginary walk and had felt their weight responding subtly (but really) to the image; so when “Standing” was said, the smiles revealed that they got the small joke. They realized that I knew about the effect. We had arrived at an invisible (but real) place together.

这个时候,我会观察到大家脸上的微小笑容,我猜想他们理解了我想要他们感受的,他们开始了一个想象中的散步,也感受到了身体的重量面对想象的画面的微小(但却真实)的回应,当我说“站立”的时候,这个笑容也告诉我,他们理解了这个小小的玩笑,他们明白我知道他们此刻的感受,我们共同抵达了一个不可见(但真实)的地方。

The stand was useful. The basic event was standing and observing the body. This was an exercise in itself, though very reductive one. What gets exercised in there, inside the standing body, is the habit of observation; a noticeable movement of consciousness through the body. Within this exercise there are encounters with parts of the body which tick along or breathe along as we watch. It clearly seems to one sub-system, consciousness, examining others.

站立是有用的,最基本的活动就是站立和观察身体,它本身就是一个练习,虽然是一个非常简单的练习。在站立的身体中,我们练习的是一个观察的习惯,一个可被注意到的在身体中意识(consciousness)的移动,在这个练习中,我们和身体的每个部位相遇,当我们观察的时候,这些身体部位会有感知,或一起呼吸。很明显,这是一个系统分支,我们的意识,在探究不属于它的部分。

The other sub-systems are not obviously connected to the wandering consciousness, except that the encounter happens in what one calls “my body.” The consciousness-as-observer

regards the other sub-systems as separate from itself.

其他的系统分支没有明显地和这个游走的意识系统相连,除了在我们说“我的身体”的这个时候,两者遇见,作为观察者的意识(the consciousness as observer)将其他的系统分支看作和它是相互分离的。

The consciousness can travel inside the body. It is analogous to focusing the eyes in the external world. There is also an analogue for peripheral vision, which is the

awareness of the whole body with senses open. Knowing these things and practicing them are different things, of course, we know far more than we can practice. We had to decide what to practice.

意识可以在身体中穿梭,我们说将眼睛向外在世界去看,对于我们周边视觉(peripheral vision),我们也会说,我们将感官打开,去觉知整个身体。当然,知道这些东西,和去实际练习是完全不同的,我们知道的永远比我们练习的要多,我们需要去决定我们练习什么。

One choice was the tiny movements the body makes while standing. I felt they were examples of reflex actions. They were not directed by the observing consciousness. Observing them might train the consciousness to understand reflex speed without going through an emergency experience which is when we’re most often aware of our reflexes.

一个选择就是观察站立时候身体做出的细微运动,我感觉到这些运动来自于我们条件反射的行为(reflex action),而不是观察的意识(observing consciousness)能够去决定的,观察这个过程可以训练我们的意识,去在不用经历一个紧急事件的前提下,理解我们条件反射的速度,我们通常只有在紧急事件中才能感受到我们的条件反射。

We would be provided with many examples of reflex action when we began improvising in contact, but they might be of little use to us, because the consciousness can easily tum off to the experience of these reflexive moments. In other words, we can do something without “knowing” it. This successfully preserves the integrity of the body but does not train the consciousness: it leaves a hole in the knowing of the experience. Could the consciousness learn to see these gaps of awareness? Or, if not could it at least learn to observe reflexive action calmly during the highly adrenalized moments?

我们在接触即兴中有很多时候可以去体会这种条件反射,但他们可能对我们都没什么用,因为意识很快就会插手进来,轻松地把这些条件反射发生的时刻我们的体验关闭,换句话说,我们可以做一些“我们并不知道我们做了”的事情,这个过程对于身体作为整体的运转是有好处的,但并不会训练我们的意识,它在我们对身体经验的觉知上留下了一个未知的空隙,我们的意识可以学会去看到这个觉知中未知的空隙吗?或者,如果这是不可能的,意识能不能在肾上腺素充满我们血液的那些时刻,至少去静观条件反射的行为的发生。

Why is full consciousness so important to me? Because consciousness can be felt to change according to what it experiences. If a gap of consciousness occurs at a critical moment, we lose an opportunity to learn from the moment. A black out lasting fractions of a second during a roll is not acceptable as full consciousness of the roll, and the gap will remain embedded in the movement as part of the over-all feeling of the movement. If consciousness stays open during these critical moments, it will have an experience of them and will enlarge its concept to match the new experience. This expanded picture becomes the new ground for moving.

为什么一个完整的意识对我来说如此重要?因为意识根据它所体验的,会发生改变,如果意识的空隙在一个关键的时间点发生,我们就失去了在那个时刻去学习的机会。一个滚动中,如果发生了持续在以秒计算的瞬间的无觉知空隙,我们就不能把这个滚动叫做一个完整意识的滚动,这个我们没能觉知到的空隙也会成为我们对这个运动的总体感觉中的一个部分。如果意识能够在这些时刻保持开放,他就会觉知到,并更新拓展它原有的理解,来和新的体验配合,这个拓展后的画面变成我们运动的新基础。

My speculation is that the gaps are moments when consciousness goes away. I don’t know where. But I think I know why. Something is happening which is too fast for thought. For instance, the navigation of space is normally done with head erect and visual impressions comfortably constant, with the horizon’s horizontality remaining an important reference tor our orientation. When this visual reference changes too rapidly for our (rather slow) consciousness to comprehend, as in spinning, rolling, and other disorienting” movement, something reflexive and much faster than consciousness takes over. We play with this dual aspect of ourselves on carnival rides, or when learning to turn in dance.

我的推断是,这个未被觉知到的空隙是我们意识缺失的时刻,我不太知道具体在哪里,但我知道为什么?因为发生得太快,我们的思维没法捕捉。比如我们在不用动头,保持视觉舒服稳定的情况下,我们就可以对一个空间的方位做出感知,地平线的水平方向是我们辨别方位的一个重要参照点。当这个视觉的参照点的改变速度过快,让我们(相对缓慢)的意识无法理解的情况下,比如我们在高速旋转,滚动,一些其他“让人眩晕”的运动中,我们身体的条件反射功能就会取代意识去掌控身体,因为条件反射的速度比意识要快很多。我们在失去重心的运动路径中,或者在舞蹈中学会旋转的时候,我们都在身体的这两个方面探索。

Dizziness and nausea are, I think, signals that we have reached the borderland between these two aspects of physical control — conscious and reflexive. When we linger in the borderland on purpose, we become our own experiment. We are subjecting the reflexes to stimuli so our consciousness can watch them jump. Normally, consciousness easily slips out, reflexes step in, and then step aside again, as in the blink of an eye where most of the time we are unaware of any gap in our visual continuity.

我想,眩晕感和恶心也是一个信号,我们抵达了意识和条件反射这两个身体控制方面的极限。当我们有意待在这个极限中,我们变成了自己身体的实验。我们去刺激条件反射的产生,我们的意识可以去观察这个过程,通常,意识会很快就失去,条件反射接管,然后又转换,在一个瞬间,大多数时候我们都不会在我们持续的视线中捕捉到任何的空白。

Visual continuity is one of many ways we know where we are,” and not knowing where we are is experienced as an emergency situation. How many times a day, or an hour. do we reorient, I wonder. At any rate, contact improvisation constantly challenges one’s orientation: visual, directional, balance, and where in the body the consciousness is positioned. The challenge to orientation is not just in the more acrobatic aspects of the movement. Students were sometimes made nauseous by noticing their internal space while standing still. This, oddly enough, is probably a form of motion sickness, which has been described as having a moving deck

under one’s feet but a steady horizon. In the stand, one experiences still feet and moving consciousness inside the body. In rolling or turning, the room seems (from the point

of view of the eyes) to move, while the floor remains stable to the touch. What I had to do was resolve the problem of orientation so that the consciousness could stay aware of the

movement. A chicken and egg problem.

这个持续的视线也是我们知道“我们在哪里”的一个方式,当我们不知道我们在哪时,我们的身体会体会到一个紧急状态的感觉,我们每天,每个小时,都在不断的寻找这个我们的方位感,接触即兴反复的挑战这个方位,视觉上的,方向上的,平衡,以及身体中意识存在的位置,这个对方向感的挑战并不只是运动中有杂技技巧的部分。有时候学生在站立中观察自己内在的空间时也会感到恶心感。这或许是一种运动失衡时的晕车一般的反应。我们在这个情况下可以体会到这种反应,当一个人站在一个移动的板子上,他的视线水平,但板子在不断运动。在站立中,我们感受到的双脚的稳定和平衡,但意识却在身体中不断移动,在身体滚动和旋转中,房间似乎在运动(从我们的视线的参照点),地板是稳定的,我们可以触摸到,我需要做的就是解决方位的问题,以便我们的意识可以持续觉知到运动。一个鸡生蛋,还是蛋生鸡的难题。

Everyone in this group was athletic and many of them were dancers, so presumably their consciousness had already been informed by body movement. But they weren’t being asked to do what they knew how do to. They were being asked to improvise; to do (or allow themselves to do) what they didn’t expect to do. Under these circumstances previously learned movement techniques often hamper rather than help the desired sort of manifestation. Movement techniques are useful for other reasons, of course, but not for examining gaps of consciousness during unexpected movement.

团队中很多人都是有运动背景,许多人也是舞者,所以我设想他们的意识都很熟悉身体的运动,但我们并没有让他们去做他们知道和熟悉的事情,我们让他们去即兴表演,去做他们不知道会发生什么的事情(或者说允许他们自己去做),在这个情况下,之前学习到的运动技巧会阻碍,而不是帮助我们达到这个目的,运动技巧的学习在其他方面可能很有帮助,但不会在不可预知的运动中观察意识的空隙时。

Consciousness, supported by a collection of images and internal observations which reinforced each other, had a job. It should not press the body, nor engage in time travel out

of the body into memories or schedules because these bring images which will also affect the body, distracting from the improvisation at hand. In this improvisation the conscious-

ness was to hang in with the body, during real time, and stay alert. It should be a witness

我们的意识由一系列的画面和内部觉察支持,这两者也互相协助,意识不应该给身体压力,也不应该让身体如时间穿越般地回忆过去,或者计划未来,因为这些活动会产生新的画面,进而影响身体,分散手头的即兴。在这个即兴的过程中,意识应该和身体一起,随时随刻保持警惕,它应该是一个见证人。

This sort of consciousness — awareness of the present physical reality — is familiar to all of us. In fact the reason it is useful is that it is commonly understood, though employ-

ing it requires choices. Without a process of sorting we are confronted with such a variety of current physical images that we re inundated rather than guided into a practice.

这种对身体此刻的现实状态觉知的意识,对我们所有人都是熟悉的,它的有用性也体现在它的容易被理解上,虽然当我们要用它的时候,我们需要有选择,没有一个整体的过程,我们面对如此多的当下身体画面,我们会有点目不暇接,很难进入一个练习的状态。

As the right kind of images were found, a working model began to emerge in my mind. The working model was based on aspects of an experience that I’d had while working with another person, in which an interesting event occurred and confirmed by both of us. Moments of the duet, typically manifesting as “accidental” and flowing streams of movement, were for both of us pleasant, highly stimulating, and elemental. With other partners, more confirmations. II was worth pursuing,

当合适的画面被找到时,一个运作模式开始在我的脑海中浮现。这个运作模式是基于我和另一个人一起工作时的经历,当时发生了一件有趣的事情,并得到了我们双方的证实。双人舞的时刻,通常表现为“偶然的”和动作的流动,对我们两人来说都是愉快的,高度刺激的,和充满自然力的。与其他伙伴之间(获得)更多的确认,这是值得追求的。

The working model was predicated on this experience and a desire to articulate the experience so others could find it. If others did find it, we were perhaps examining a basic mode of communication between the reflexes of people in physical contact as they moved. It was an idea which took two people to have. It wasn’t wresting, embracing, sex, social dancing, though it was an element of all of those. It needed a name, so we could refer to it without unwanted connotations, Contact Improvisation…?

这个运作模式是基于这种经验和表达这种经验的愿望,这样其他人就可以理解(这个模型是怎么运作的)。如果其他人确实发现了这一点,我们可能正在研究一种基本的交流模式,人们在移动时身体接触的反应。这是一个需要两个人来实现的想法。它不是摔跤,拥抱,性,交际舞,虽然它是所有上述行为的某种元素。它需要一个名字,这样我们就可以提及它,而不会有多余的内涵。“接触即兴”?

A simple imaginary person with no physical, sensorial, or social inhibitions. It was a generic person with positive elements I had observed in many students, dancers, martial arists, and children. I had met such a being in my partners when we were doing “it,” the duet phenomenon. I had been such a being to them, apparently. when they too confirmed

the moment. It had to be a fairly simple model, because the users (the students and I) were actually functioning human beings with more possible neuronal connections than there are

particles in the universe. I could not cope with that of course, nor other evident human complexities. in terns of the safety of the body in active interaction with another body, though. I saw I could ask the student to concentrate on movement and how it feels, and then suggest concentrating on the sensations of their weigh, momentum, friction, the touch of their partner, the sensation of the floor under their body, and to lean to maintain their peripheral vision of the

space. The working model had these characteristics and others equally easy to understand. These were aimed. at security, not at improvising. I recall saying that improvising could not be taught, though it could be learned.

为了想象这些练习,我把运作模式设定为一个简单的想象中的人,没有身体上、感官上或社会(社交)上的限制。这是一个具有积极因素的普通人,这是我在许多学生、舞者、武术习练者和孩子身上都能观察到的。当我们在做“它”,这种双人现象发生的时候,我就在我的搭档身上遇到过这样的存在。显然,我对他们来说就是这样一个存在,而他们也证实了这一时刻。它必须是一个相当简单的模式,因为用户(学生和我)实际上是有功能的人类,拥有比宇宙中粒子更多的可能的神经元连接。当然,我无法处理这个问题,也无法处理其他明显的人类的复杂性。鉴于身体与另一个身体积极交互时的安全性,我看到我可以让学生专注于他们的运动以及去感受运动所产生的感觉,然后建议他们专注身体重量、惯性、摩擦力、伙伴的触摸所带来的感觉,对身体之下的地板的感觉,并且学会维护自己的周边视觉空间。运作模式具有这些特征,其它特征也同样容易理解。这些都是有目的的,为了安全起见,而不是即兴发挥。我记得我说过,即兴是不能教的,但是可以被学习。

But I did think that safety could be taught, ”Keep your knees over your toes,” for instance, is taught to students of dance. With the characteristics of the working model developed and understood by the students, I hoped they would be safe even if they were ass-over-teakettle.

但我确实认为安全是可以教授的。例如,舞蹈课教授的课程是“保持膝盖在脚趾上方”。根据学生们对这种运作模式特点的发展与理解,我希望他们是安全的,即使他们“屁股在热水壶上方”。(译者注:比喻处在惊险时刻,也对应前面“膝盖在脚趾上方”这种舞蹈课教学常用术语)

I pressed on. I made assumptions. I assumed I could explain things directly to the body (“notice gravity “). I assumed the body knew what I was talking about (gravity, usually ignored, moves into focus as a sensation of weight).

我继续向前推进。我做一个假设。我认为我可以直接向身体解释事物(“注意重力”)。我假设身体知道我在说什么(当我们说常被忽视的重力时,我们的身体专注在重量感的转移)。

I assumed that the body, having evolved for millions of years on this planet, was tuned first by planetary things which create our potentials, and second by cultural things which develop select parts of the potential. This is in line with some current theories about how we acquire language; we are born with potential to make the variety of human sounds and language connections, but are guided into the specific language of our culture, and the unused potential withers with disuse.

我假设身体,在这个星球上已经进化了几百万年,首先是被行星事物调谐去创造我们的潜能,其次是被文化事物所调谐,去发展所选择的潜能的某些部分。这种二元形成的概念与当前一些关于我们如何习得语言的理论是一致的;我们生来就有创造各种人类声音和语言联系的潜力,但却被引导到我们文化的特定语言中,未被利用的潜力随着废弃而枯萎。

For the working model, the basic question was — potential for what? What had the culture physically suppressed or selected out which we might reclaim? We may, with a bit of

experience of sub-cultures of our own, and other cultures, understand something of what our culture requires of us for inclusion: certain gestures, modes of posture and bebavior —body language, as they say — which constitute proper social activities and communications, as well as the accompanying mental attitudes we acquire or aspire to for proper presentation of our ‘selves’. Indeed, the very idea of a “self” is probably a cultural construction.

对于运作模式,基本的问题是:潜能是什么? 文化在发展中对身体的哪些潜能产生压制和去除性选择,我们可以重新找回,我们可以,有一点我们自己的亚文化的经验,和其它文化的经验,理解我们的文化需要我们包容:某些手势,姿态和行为模式(身体语言,就像他们说的),组成适当的社会活动和沟通,以及伴随我们需要或恰当的表示渴望“自我”的精神态度。事实上,“自我”的概念,本身可能是一种文化建构。

In sports and dance the rules of physical behavior are altered from the basic social behavior to encompass activities understood to be outside the social norm but allowable in a controlled way. These activities require different sensing modes than does the usual body language we must learn for eating in company or attending school The working model and its characteristics were like sports and dance in that they were altered However, they depart from one another in how they are learned. Contact Improvisation behavior evolves from sensing movement; dance and sports, from attempting movement and then letting the senses fall into line, or not.

在体育和舞蹈中,身体行为的规则从基本的社会行为改变为包括那些被理解为社会规范之外但在可控的方式下被允许的活动。这些活动需要不同的感觉模式,这和我们我们在公司吃饭或上学时必须习得的身体行为规则是不同的。它的运作模式和特点如同运动和舞蹈,因为它们被改变了(译者注:相较于社会规范所要求的身体行为而言,它们被改变了)。然而,它们在学习的方式上却彼此不同。

接触即兴的行为模式是从感知动作而进行演变的;舞蹈和体育运动,从尝试动作,然后要求对动作的感觉统一,或者不统一。

As to how we are educated… Not to become too embroiled in this, we may simply note that most of us learn to sit still and focus our attention for hours each day. The missing potential here is obvious – movement of the body and varieties of peripheral sensing.

至于我们是如何受教育的……不要太过沉迷于此,我们可以简单地注意到,我们中的大多数人都学会了每天坐着不动,集中注意力几个小时。这里缺失的潜能是很明显的——身体的运动和对周遭不同状况的感知。

Our alterations involved the investigation of space, time and mass with senses in peripheral sensing mode: becomes spherical, time is the present, mass is a changeable orientation to gravity.

我们的改变涉及到对空间、时间和质量的研究,我们的改变包括了对空间,时间,主体重量在感官转化到周遭感知模式时的探索: 空间变成球形,时间是当下,主体重量是回应地球引力不断调整的位置。

In devising an approach to this working model of the body, I skipped blithely by constraints and taboos of touching, because people are accustomed to ignoring them on the subway, during sports, or in the doctor’s office. And I did not emphasize the unpredictable nature of the improvisation, akin to dancing on constantly shifting ground, but suggested instead a steady state of watching the reflexes. Let the reflexes figure out how to deal with the unpredictable.

在设计这种身体运作模式的方法时,我无忧无虑地跳过了触摸的限制和禁忌,因为人们习惯了在地铁上、运动时或在医生办公室里忽略它们。我并没有强调即兴的本质是不可预测的,类似于在不断变化的场地上跳舞,而是建议以一种稳定的状态来观察反应能力。让反应能力指出如何应对不可预测的情况。

This method aimed to reclaim physical possibilities which may have become dormant, senses we have been trained to disregard. What would this lead to, really? It sounds very nice, this reclaiming and opening, but where would these changes take us? Who would we be?

这种方法的目的是恢复那些可能已经休眠的物理可能性,那些我们已经被训练去忽略的感觉。这真的会导致什么?听起来很不错,这样的重新找回和开放性,但这些变化会把我们带到哪里? 我们会是谁?

When we began. in 1972, I went boldly into all this. The people in the group were young, healthy, and alert. I assumed that if we didn’t consciously focus on problems we

wouldn’t create them, and at least such difficulties as surfaced would not have been projected. As I said earlier, things seemed simpler then

当我们在1972年开始时,我大胆地进行了这一切。这组人年轻、健康、机敏。我假设,如果我们不有意识地关注问题,我们就不会制造问题;至少这些浮出水面的困难不会被预料到。就像我说的,当时的事情似乎更简单。

It was to be assumed that some of these students would eventually teach something of what they were doing to others, and I felt the need to develop this material in such a way that the students were aware of the teaching mechanisms. It boiled down to making the principle — physical, mental, and cultural — known to them as they learned them. We had the services of Steve Christiansen and his video camera and spent hours, when we were not working on the

mat, examining the movement and ourselves, the movers.

假设这些学生中的一些人最终会教一些他们对其他人所做的事情,我觉得有必要以一种让学生了解教学机制的方式来发展这些材料。这可以归结为让他们在学习的过程中了解这些原则——生理的、心理的和文化的。我们有史蒂夫·克里斯蒂安森(Steve Christiansen)的摄像服务。当我们不在垫子上工作时,我们花了好几个小时观察动作和我们自己——做动作的人。

This was very useful. Video was, in those days, a new tool for witnessing the body/mind, and let us see points in action when we were operative but not conscious. Such moments, noticed with the help of the videotape or close observation by a partner, could later be examined in action. Clues about the nature of the gap might be noticed. We began to notice where the gaps appeared, at any rate, and something of their frequency. We also noticed high unfettered moments (and recalled the accompanying feelings). And we observed fettered duets where reflexive movement was not to be seen. Sometimes people seemed wary, unable to let go of conscious control. Disorientation, fear, or fixed habitual responses would be noticed.

这非常有用。在那些日子里,视频是一种新的工具,可以用来见证身体和精神,让我们看到行动中的某些情形是在做动作却没有意识的。在录像的帮助下或伙伴的密切观察下发现的这些瞬间,稍后可以在行动中进行检查。关于这一间隙(gap)意识状态本质的线索可能会被注意到。我们开始注意间隙出现的地方,无论如何,以及它们出现的频率,我们也注意到高度不受约束的时刻(并回忆与之伴随的感受)。我们观察到被束缚的双人舞,在这些双人舞中,反射动作是看不到的。有时人们似乎很警惕,无法放弃有意识的控制。会注意到迷失方向、恐惧或固定的习惯性回应。

In the working model, events of the emotions and disorientations which were felt in conjunction with a gap in awareness were considered to be symptomatic that the senses were not quite ready to report what was happening to the consciousness, that instead they were reporting to the reflexive part of the mind and body.

在这个运作模式中,情绪及失衡发生时,我们在意识中感受到无觉知空隙,说明我们的感官没有能力向意识报告当下发生的,它只能向身心中负责管理条件反射的部分报告这个事件。

I couldn’t understand the wary duets. Obviously trust was missing. With some other partner or on some other day, this tended to change. All I could do to cope with this mode was to have partners change regularly. Eventually everyone found a duet which led them to their reflexes.

我不理解那些小心翼翼的双人舞,显然信任不见了。与其他伙伴或在其它日子跳舞,这种情况往往会改变。为了应对这种模式,我所能做的就是让伙伴定期更换。最终每个人都找到了能让他们进入自身反射动作的双人舞。

When I proposed movement techniques they sometimes contravened ingrained movement habits: for instance, the aikido roll, which is a diagonally forward roll that arrived on our shores from the Orient. At the very attempt at this roll, students translated it into a somersault, the symmetrical forward roll we learn in Western movement. This misunderstanding could persist through any number of repetitions of examples and attempts and was seriously frustrating to both the students and me. If they couldn’t put their finger on what was going wrong, I decided, it was perhaps because nothing in previous movement experience had prepared them for the

movement principles which were developed in the Eastern martial arts.

我提出的动作技巧有时会违背根深蒂固的动作习惯:例如,合气道翻滚,这是一种从东方传到西方的对角线向前的翻滚。在这个翻滚的过程中,学生们将其转化为一个翻筋斗,也就是我们在西方运动中学习的对称的前翻滚。这种误解可能会让学生持续不断的重复和尝试错误的运动模式,这对我和学生来说都是非常令人沮丧的。我认为,如果他们不知道哪里出了问题,那可能是因为他们在之前的动作经验中并没有为东方武术界的动作原则做好准备。

These repeated attempts at the aikido roll provided the first gap I noticed. The act of propelling the body into the roll is slightly scary, and many people have open eyes before and after the roll, but in the moment when they are taking weight on their neck and shoulders, they have their eyes squeezed shut, and they are not aware that this is so.

这些对合气道翻滚的重复尝试提供了让我注意到的第一个间隙。推动身体成卷的行为有点令人恐惧:许多人在这个翻滚动作之前和之后都是睁开眼睛的,但在那一刻,当他们的体重在颈部和肩膀时,他们的眼睛挤压着不敢睁开,他们对此并没有没有意识。

I did not solve this two-part problem in time for the first performance, nor for many years after, though the students did perfect their somersaults.

第一次表演时,我并没有及时解决这个(动作被分割成睁眼闭眼)两部分的问题,之后的许多年也没有及时解决,尽管学生们翻筋斗做得很完美。

I learned that before the body could find the new rolling pattern it was useful for it to learn the sensations which an aikido roll creates.

我了解到,在身体学习如何用新的方式翻滚之前,去体会合气道滚带来的感受是有用的。

The new sensations, and the parts of the arm, shoulder, and back where the sensations arise in the roll, could be explored without committing the whole body to the roll. This changed the position of the consciousness relative to the exercise. Instead of an unknown action vs. an habitual known action which is so similar that it subverts the attempt, the student has two knowable actions. One is new, tentative, but understood through the sensorial model. The other is habitual. Having remedied the first difficulty by establishing the difference between the two concepts of rolling, the gaps of consciousness in either could be ferreted out

新的感觉,以及翻滚时产生感觉的手臂、肩膀和背部部分,可以在不让整个身体都参与翻滚的情况下进行探索,这改变了我们如何思考意识感受在练习中的重要性。学生有两个可知的行为,而不是未知的行为和习惯性的已知行为(如此相似以致于破坏了尝试)。一种是新的、试探性的,但通过感官模型来理解。另一个是习惯性的。通过建立两个不同的翻滚概念之间的区别,去解决第一个困难,意识的间隙可以在其中任意一个概念中被搜出。

These explorations evolved into new technical approaches. It was noticeable that the approaches require that the student work with helpful mental attitudes as well as directly with the

physical body. In the aikido roll example above, it was less helpful to know the pattern mentally and try willfully to do it than it was to become an observer of the sensations and to work calmly on each emotional, orientational, or habitual block as it arose.

这些探索演变成新的技术方法,显而易见的是,这些方法要求学生以有益的精神态度工作,这种精神态度也是直接与身体相关的。在上面的合气道翻滚的例子中,在心理上精神上了解这个动作模式并试图去做它,不比成为感觉的观察者并且在每个情绪、意图或习惯阻塞出现时平静地工作更有帮助。

The quality of consciousness was coming into focus. It wasn’t all of consciousness and all possible interactions, of course. A working model for consciousness in this case is Swiss cheese. We buy it as a lump, and don’t attend to the holes because we don’t use them. I was tryng to point to the holes, assuming that if a Swiss cheese could be aware of itself, then the cheesy part was one sort of consciousness and the holes were another sort, integral to the shape, the nature of the whole cheese. We can’t take this model much further, I realize; which may be to the advantage of getting on with the movement and its interaction with the consciousness.

意识的质量逐渐成为焦点。当然,这并不全是意识和所有可能的互动。在这种情况下,意识的运作模式可以被称之为瑞士奶酪。我们把它当作一个整体来买,不去注意那些洞,因为我们不用它们。我试图指向那些洞,假设如果一块瑞士奶酪能够感知自己,那么奶酪的部分就是一种意识,而那些洞则是另一种意识,与整个奶酪的形状和性质密不可分。我意识到,这个模型无法进一步发展,所以让我们继续研究动作及其与意识的互动。

As we began work on opening up the senses to their larger potential, it became clear that each of the senses has images of differing natures. The Swiss cheese above, mostly a visual image in that I am concentrating on how the cheese looks, occurred in my brain and was transferred to another person by my voice, so it was a verbal transmission of a visual image. What was most needed in our work was kinetic imagery which was both appropriate to the movement

mode and true (unlike the speculation about the consciousness of the cheese).

当我们开始探索感官的更大潜能时,很明显每一种感官都有不同性质的画面。上面提到的的瑞士奶酪,主要是一个视觉画面,我专注于看奶酪的样子,它在我的大脑中发生,并通过我的声音传递给另一个人,所以它是一个视觉画面的口头传递。在我们的工作中,最需要的是动态意象(kinetic image),既适合动作模型,又真实(不像对奶酪意识的推测)。

The small movements of standing “still,” which formed the basis of this sort of investigation, are true; they are really there. But are they images or sensations? If we observed them, would they filter through the observing mind and affect the body as images do? Does the nervous system and its mediation of posture relative to gravity have the possibility of teaching the consciousness, and does the consciousness have the property of amplifying or strengthening that mediation?

构成这类调查的基础的站立“静止”的微小动作是真实的;他们真的在那里。但它们是画面还是感觉? 如果我们观察它们,它们是否会像画面那样渗透进观察的心智(mind),去影响身体? 神经系统及其与重力相关的姿态调节是否有可能教授意识?而意识是否具有放大或加强这种中介性的性质呢?

I assumed this reciprocity did exist. I decided that sensations are what we feel to be happening at the moment, and they can become images when we take notice that we are observing them. This suggests that the consciousness can be aware of itself — a defining characteristic — and that there is a positive use for this ability to split into self-regard. However, consciousness doesn’t work very well with the unknown, as was revealed in the aikido roll. It seems to need to know or be noticing in order to direct itself and the body. The altitude of “witnessing” may change this internal control issue. The search for internal sensations reveals that “I can

feel the small movements.” Then our attitude begins to shift toward, “The body is kept upright by constant reflexive muscular actions around the skeleton.” First we feel the movements, then we can objectify the feelings into images. The moment between these perceptions can be as short as a hyphen. Al the above suggests that there is an important difference between knowing-noticing and noticing-knowing.

我假设这种互惠是存在的。感知是我们能感受到当下发生着什么,当我们注意到我们在观察它们时,它们可以成为画面。这样的方式也需要意识能够觉知到它自己——一个被定义的特征——这个能力有一个积极的作用去分出自负或自尊(to split into self-regard)。不论如何,就像在合气道滚中,意识在未知情况下并不总是能被很好的运用。它似乎需要了解或注意去给到它和身体方向。而“见证”的态度也许可以改变这个内心控制的问题。对内在感知的寻求表现出“我可以感受到细小的运动”。接着我们的态度开始改变,“随着围绕骨骼的持续的反射的肌肉运动,身体在保持挺直。”起初我们感受着动作,接着我们可以把感受变成画面。这些知觉之间的间隙可以像连字符那么短暂。以上都是在提出:在“知道-注意”和“注意-知道”之间有很重要的区别。

These are the sorts of thoughts which came to mind during the working period from January to June, 1972. Or to say it in terms of the work: from Magnesium at Oberlin College through the spring term at Bennington College where we further identified the premise, the phenomenon, to the presentation of the work in NYC I called “contact improvisations.” Students from those two institutions (plus members of the downtown dance community in NYC who “sat in”) were joined by students from the classes of Mary Fulkerson at the U. of Rochester. The Rochester group was least familiar with the proposed movement, and as Fulkerson was teaching them Release Technique via intensive image work, it was in order to reach these students quickly that the approach outlined above was developed beyond what had been necessary at Bennington College.

这是1972年1月到6月我工作时出现在脑海里的一些想法,或者说是在这个期间发生的:从在欧柏林学院(Oberlin College)的“镁”项目到在本宁顿学院(Bennington College)的春季学期的探索,在那时我们更进一步定义了“前提、现象”,在纽约大学的总结分享中我称之为“接触即兴”。来自这两个研究院的学生(加上纽约大学在市中心的舞团成员)通过在罗切斯特大学(Rochester)Mary Fulkerson的课程了解到的都来参与了。罗切斯特舞团最不熟悉这个被提出的舞动,同时Fulkerson有正在教他们通过密集的画面工作学习放松技术(Release Technique),也是为了更快地让这些学生达到,这个被重点划线的方法的发展已经远远超出了本宁顿学院对学生的需求。

At Bennington, I had begun by introducing these students of Western dance to Aikido techniques. However, I soon abandoned teaching Aikido and started work on specific tools for the interior techniques. Although physical techniques could be found for specific movement training, what those students required was a vision of Eastern martial arts philosophy underlying the techniques (or a viable replacement for that). This laid the ground for introducing an improvisation which requires a state of personal involvement and physical responsibility with/for another person.

在本宁顿,我给学生介绍从西方舞蹈到合气道技术的内容。然后,我很快就放弃了教合气道,而是开始使用一些具体的工具来教授学习内在的技能。尽管在具体的舞动训练中可以发现身体技巧,我却要求这些学生从技巧背后看到东方的武术理念(或是一种切实可行的可替代的理念)。这样对于介绍一个要求个人内在专注和对伙伴有身体重量责任的即兴来说,可以打下踏实的基础。

It must be pointed out that many of the ideas about moving which I used existed before this study. The teachings of Release Technique, Aikido, and several other physical and mental disciplines were influential, and were adjusted according to my understanding at the time in order to convey the movement principles of the area of improvisation described by the words contact improvisation.

必须说明的是,这些我使用的很多关于移动的理念在这个研究之前就已经存在。放松技巧、合气道,还有很多其他身体或心理自律的教学都很有影响力,而我为了传递基于以“接触即兴”这个词汇描述的即兴领域的舞动原则,也根据我的理解对这些教学方法作了一些调整。

Beyond that, to enable the movement to be accomplished  safely, came physical exercises designed to introduce sensations that arise during “flying,” lifting, and being lifted, and

to physically strengthen the body for these energetic extremes of the form. Physical strength was seen as the result of finding the right, i.e., easiest, most efficient inner “pathways.” Stress was discouraged.

更多的是,为了让这个舞动被安全地完成,一些出现的身体练习也被设计为学习在“飞翔”、托举和被托举中升起的感知,以及为了这些极其有能量的形式而从物理层面强化身体。身体力量被视为在找到对的、合适的、最轻松的、最有效的内在的“路径”时的结果。而不鼓励压力。

We were starting to work on the technical method, a work which continues today, in an effort to describe what Contact Improvisation is on its own terms as a phenomenon of duet movement as well as in the personal terms of a student, who may for instance have physical strength but spatial weakness, or improvisational skills but does not trust their weight to another person.

我们开始在技术的方法上做研究,持续到今天,致力于描述接触即兴是什么,基于双人舞动的现象,也基于对于一个也许拥有身体力量但缺乏空间感知、或即兴能力很丰富但不信任自己给出重量予他人的学生。

To summarize: images were used to focus the mind and then give the mind foci within the sensations of the body.

总结一下:画面可以用来让心智(mind)专注,然后给予心智一个在身体感知范围内的聚焦点。

The words had to be unambiguous, unthreatening, informative and generally understood.

这些词汇需要不含糊、不具威胁性、提供有用信息并被普遍地理解。

The statements had to be true, obvious, relevant.

这个陈述必须真实、明显、且相关。

To speak was also to set the tone. I tried to simplify the issues of the body for transmission to another body. I moved the mind of my mouth into my body, located issues, and reported the issues speaking (I assumed) directly to another body. The student’s consciousness was enlisted to manage attitudes and observe the effect of image on the body, and to derive from these effects, and others observed within their bodies, images which could be named and otherwise objectified and discussed, and fitted into the improvisational structure.

而当我讲出来的时候也定了基调。我试着简化身体转化成另一个身体的问题。我把嘴的心智移动到身体里,定位问题,并把问题通过讲述直接报告给另一个身体。学生们的意识想谋以控制姿势、观察画面对身体的影响,并从影响中获得,观察在身体中、被赋予名字的画面,在其他方面具象化、讨论、并放入适合即兴的框架里。

I made a number of assumptions. To study something like improvisation, which is defined as you go, everything you assume is going to affect the result. I tried to be aware of what the assumptions were and to let the phenomenon we explored, the narrower field of improvisation when communicating via touch with another person, guide the definitive imagery into appropriate areas.

我提出了很多假设。学习像即兴一样的事物,这些事被定义为:当你开始,一切你假设的都会影响这个结果。我试着去觉知这些假设都是什么,并让我们探索的现象、通过与另一个人接触而沟通的更狭窄范围的即兴,去带领着最终的画面进入最合适的场地。

This guidance caused us to consider all sorts of things, such as communication, emotion, psychology, sex, education, childhood development, culture, taboos, space, time, and the self. It is all very well to say that one takes responsibility for one’s self in improvisation, but it is indeed a staggering job in its details. An improvisor’s job is never done. All this to explore the ability of the consciousness to cleave to the body’s moment and remain there as the moment changes.*

这种带领会让我们去考虑各种各样的事情,比如沟通、情绪、心理、性、教育、童年经历、文化、禁忌、空间、时间和它自己。在即兴里一个人对自己负责任当然是好的,但这在细节上也有很多的令人难以相信的大量的工作要做。一位即兴者的工作永远不会结束。探索紧贴着身体瞬间的意识的能力,以及当这些瞬间变化时能保留在那里。

for John Cage

致约翰凯奇

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